Preliminary Draft: 2007.03.09:
Some sources not yet in hand.
soil mechanics ..
soil science ....
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basic definitions .. derivation .. principal souirces
additional sources .. incorrect definitions .. notes .. bibliograophy
|Symbol||[M, L, T]||Name||Definition|
| || ||bulk density||total mass divided by total volume.|
| || ||dry density||mass of solids divided by total volume.|
| || ||bulk unit weight||total weight divided by total volume.|
| || ||dry unit weight||weight of solids divided by total volume.|
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The basic terms are:
Hence, ‘bulk density’ is the collective mass in a unit of volume, which is the same as ‘total mass divided by total volume’.
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In considering the older sources, remember that ‘weight’ was a measure of quantity in those days.
“ ratio between total weight and total volume of soil” (2: ISSMFE, 1981: bulk density was given as a synonym for ‘unit weight of soil’ on p.13, and defined thereby on p.122, although ‘density of soil’ is defined on the line above).
“ mass per unit volume of the soil deposit including any water it contains” (3: BS 1377: Part 2: Clause 7.1.1: 1990).
“ the weight of a material (including solid particles and any contained water) per unit volume including voids” (4: DSIR, 1952, p.524).
“ mass per unit volume of an in situ material or deposit, including voids and liquids” (Definition 221 2201 ... this source is thought to be a list of BS terms).
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“ total weight (including contained water) divided by the volume (5: Capper and Cassie, 1949, pp.49-50).
Geotechnique (6: 1950) used gamma to denote ‘bulk density’ (without definition), as did Capper and Cassie (loc. cit., for ‘bulk density’), Terzaghi (7: p.26, for ‘unit weight’, also without definition), and ISSFME (loc. cit., see above).
Akroyd (8: 1957, p.21-2:) equated the terms ‘density’ and ‘bulk density’, pointing out that bulk density is required in the calculation of bearing capacity, stability of slopes, settlement and compaction [which would require total weight and total volume]. He added that “the bulk density is determined from the weight of soil in a container of known volume ...” without mentioning drying. He used the terms ‘wet bulk density’ and ‘dry bulk density’ (loc. cit., p.44); but his formulae are difficult to follow, perhaps due to a misprint or an omission. However, he did use ‘total mass divided by total volume’ in examples (e.g. p.86).
“ total weight divided by total volume” (9: Yong and Warkentin, 1966, p.24; but see also below).
“ total weight of soil per unit volume” (10: C.R.Scott, 1969, p.17).
“ mass of bulk soil, including solid particles, water and air, contained in a unit volume” (11: Head, 1980, vol.1 p.102).
total mass divided by total volume (12: Lee, White and Ingles, 1983, p.10).
(13: Head, 1992, vol.1 p...) 2nd Ed. not yet available for checking.
“ the weight per unit volume of any material including voids and water contained in it” (14: J.S.Scott, 1991).
“ mass per unit volume which includes mass of air or water in the voids” (15: Chudley, 1995, p.56).
“ ratio of excavated weight to replaced volume” (16: Cox, 1996).
“ ratio of the total mass to the total volume” (17: Craig, 1997, p.25).
(18: Craig, 2004, ...) not yet available for checking.
(19: Head, 2006, vol.1 p...) 3rd Ed. not yet available for checking.
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Instead of using ‘dry density’, the sources listed below defined ‘mass of solids divided by total volume’ as ‘bulk density’.
“ the mass of dry soil per unit bulk volume” (20: SSSA, 1997; Web Edition 2007.02.27).
“ mass (weight) of a unit volume of dry soil” (21: Buckman and Brady, 1960, p.50)
weight of solids divided by total volume (22: Brewer, 1964, pp.437-8).
mass of oven-dry soil divided by its field volume (23: SSEW, 1974, p.42; 1976 Edition not checked)
weight of solids divided by total volume (24: Yong and Warkentin, 1975, p.17).
“ mass of dry soil per unit bulk volume” (25: Stein, 1980, p.675).
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Still under consideration.
“ratio of the mass of a quantity of material (or one phase) and the total volume occupied by this material (including other phases)” (26: ISO 11074: Section 3.1.1: 2005). On this basis, we seem to need: ‘bulk density of soil in its natural state’ for ‘bulk density’; and ‘bulk density of soil particles’ for ‘dry density’: also, we seem to be able to have ‘bulk density of selenium’ for ‘mass of selenium per unit volume’.
SSEW (23: 1974, p.91) used the term ‘moist bulk density’.
Etude Geotechnique (27: 1983, p.124) used the terms ‘le poids volumique du sol humide’ and ‘le poids volumique du sol sec’; but ISSMFE used ‘masse volumique’ and ‘masse volumique du sol sec’ (2: ISSMFE, 1981, pp.13 & 35).
density of the soil: “ratio of the weight of soil to the corresponding volume” (28: Bowles, 1977, p.11).
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1. OED. The Oxford English Dictionary. Electronic ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
2. ISSMFE. Lexicon in 8 Languages: Technical Terms, Symbols and Definition in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Swedish Used in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Fifth ed. International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 1981. (Printed by The Bryant Press Limited, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.)
3. BS 1377. Methods of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes, 1990. [Nine parts.]
4. DSIR. Soil Mechanics for Road Engineers. Edited by D.J. Maclean. London: HMSO, 1952.
5. Capper, P.L., and W.F. Cassie. The Mechanics of Engineering Soils. London: Spon, 1949.
6. Geotechnique. “Soil Mechanics Nomenclature.” Geotechnique 2 (1950): 84-86.
7. Terzaghi, K. Theoretical Soil Mechanics. New York: Wiley, 1943.
8. Akroyd, T.N.W. Laboratory Testing in Soil Engineering. London: Soil Mechanics Ltd., 1957.
9. Yong, R.N., and B.P. Warkentin. Introduction to Soil Behaviour, 1966.
10. Scott, C.R. An Introduction to Soil Mechanics and Foundations. London: MacLaren and Sons, 1969.
11. Head, K.H. Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing. Vol.1. Soil Classification and Compaction Tests. Plymouth: Pentech Press, 1980.
12. Lee, I.K., W. White, and O.G. Ingles. Geotechnical Engineering. Boston Mass.: Pitman, 1983.
13. Head, K.H. Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing. Vol.1. Soil Classification and Compaction Tests. Second ed. London: Pentech Press, 1992. [ Unchecked ]
14. Scott, J.S. The Penguin Dictionary of Civil Engineering. Fourth ed. London: Penguin, 1991. [First Edition 1958.]
15. Chudley, R. Building Construction Handbook. Second ed. Oxford: Newnes, 1995.
16. Cox, D.W. “A New Field Test for the ‘Degree of Compaction’.” In Advances in Site Investigation Practice, edited by C. Craig, 487-98. London: Thomas Telford, 1996.
17. Craig, R.F. Soil Mechanics. Sixth ed. London: Spon, 1997.
18. ------. Soil Mechanics. Seventh ed. London: Spon, 2004.
19. Head, K.H. Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing. Vol.1. Soil Classification and Compaction Tests. Third ed. London ?: Whittles Publishing, 2006. [ Ground Engineering Sept 2006 p.8 ]
20. SSSA. Glossary of Soil Science Terms. Madison, Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America, 1997. [First Edition 1956.]
21. Buckman, H.O., and N.C. Brady. The Nature and Properties of Soils. Sixth ed. New York: Macmillan, 1960.
22. Brewer, R. Fabric and Mineral Analysis of Soils. New York: Wiley, 1964.
23. SSEW. Soil Survey Field Handbook. Edited by J.M. Hodgson. Soil Survey Technical Monograph No.5. Harpenden: Soil Survey of England and Wales, 1974.
24. Yong, R.N., and B.P. Warkentin. Soil Properties and Behaviour, 1975.
25. Stein, J.S. Construction Glossary: An Encyclopedic Reference and Manual. New York, NY: Wiley, 1980.
26. BS ISO 11074. Soil Quality: Vocabulary, 2005.
27. “Etude Geotechnique et Reconnaissance Des Sols.” Revue Française de Geotechnique. Paris: Presses de l’Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, YEAR.
28. Bowles, J.E. Foundation Analysis and Design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977.
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(C) Peter Smart.